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Surface of a Beating Canine Heart

The data were derived from 26 piezoelectric crystals sewn onto the surface of a beating canine heart. The sonomicrometry system measured distances between every pair-combination of crystals at 5 millisecond intervals. XYZ coordinates were derived using a reiterative best fit method from the array of inter-crystal distance measurements and surfaces were fit based on custom Igor procedures.

These analyses allowed for estimation of ventricular volume and generation of ventricular pressure-volume loops.

Studies were conducted by Marc Dickstein, M.D., Associate Professor of Clinical Anesthesiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia at Columbia University in New York.